After World War II. cheap football kits cheap football shirts within the scope of European football quickly revived. With the creation of the European Champions Cup, each country's football exchanges have become increasingly frequent. Due to the different environment and style, traditionally, the league-tech high in Italy and Spain, and England's League pay more attention to physical confrontation, fast-paced game. But generally speaking, from the 1950s to the 1990s, the mutual influence between each league is not great. At the time, people said the Italian, English, Spanish for the three leagues, but there is no appearance of five leagues. Since the league's booming economic development and national achievement or not there is a direct link, so before this century, is considered the first Serie A league, known as the "mini World Cup." Juventus, AC Milan, Inter Milan outstanding performance in European competition. And when the Dutch football league is also splendid record, its influence today's rude French. cheap football shirts football shirts With the birth of Bosman, the transfer between the various players complete freedom, the balance of power league shrinking. Five major league interpretation became known. La Liga rapid rise; after the Premier League instead, a substantial increase competitiveness; Serie A due to the recession and to generate oligopoly less competitive; Bundesliga marked decline in the competitiveness of the same; the French due to the introduction of a large number of outstanding players from the third world making it an upstart; and Portugal over the same situation; and Dutch influence is also declining. cheap football shirts cheap football kits Development of five major European football leagues Broadly speaking, La Liga and the Premier League attracts a large number of players, to become the largest player input; Serie A after Calciopoli outflows large number of players, there are players from input to output into dangerous places; and the Bundesliga, French, Dutch already Europe's three major players exporter. Since the Spanish league attracted a large number of high-tech South American players, the Premiership is due to its strong support to enhance the economic and technological content and rapid development. 2014 can be said that the top five leagues in the Premier League the most commercial, most traditional La Liga, Serie A the most conservative, the most stable Bundesliga, while French organizational structure of the most exquisite "ideological" and "fairness." cheap football kits cheap football shirts German Football League was founded in 1963, taking subject-object double round-robin tournament. The existing 18 teams competed for the Bundesliga team. After all the events the highest total score of the team can win the league, the Bundesliga before three seats to get Champions League group stage, the first four Champions League qualifying to get seats, the first five or six seats in the European leagues, and the total score Minimum of two teams demoted to Serie B. Meanwhile, the League's first two places will get an upgrade to the next season. League penultimate 3 and Serie B 3 star relegation playoff, the winner will play in Serie A, the loser will go into the second division. cheap football kits cheap football shirts Spanish Football League was founded in 1928. Real Madrid and Barcelona, ??which is one of the world's most famous teams, the game between them is called the Spanish "national derby." It won the highest number of Real Madrid, a total of 32 times. Followed by Barcelona with 22. La Liga in recent years can be said that Real Madrid and Barcelona are mainly two-horse race. La Liga focus on technology and style of attack, with strong ornamental. According to FIFA and UEFA's official integrator, the Spanish have located the first championship for many years. La Liga in the minds of players and fans have considerable appeal, there are many of the world's most famous football player in the league to play. cheap football kits cheap football shirts English League was established in February 20, 1992, its predecessor is the English League. It won the highest number in the history of Manchester United. Premier League of the 21st century presents Manchester United, Manchester City, Chelsea, Arsenal and Liverpool five race for the situation. English League scenes of intense focus on physical confrontation, fast-paced game. English Premier League has always been considered the world's best league, the Premier League now has become the world's most popular sporting events. It is the highest-paid football league. Operation, the Premiership is the undisputed worldwide revenue and earnings far the leading professional football league. cheap football kits cheap football shirts French Football League originally French league's competitiveness is not strong, but in recent years due to the Lyon represented by some of the club began to rise, French competitiveness has improved significantly, has attracted a large number of outstanding players. French also to Africa as a representative of the Third World into the top league players springboard. cheap football kits cheap football shirts Serie A has always been one of the highest level of professional soccer league in the world, which is characterized by a focus on defense. The 1980s and 1990s, Serie A star-studded and strength of the team many, once recognized as the world's first football league, known as the "mini World Cup." But the 21st century, many clubs financial problems broke out, various factors, Serie position in Europe downward trend. cheap football shirts football shirts400-101 70-410 050-SEPROAUTH-02 200-120 MB2-703 070-462 70-462 70-461 C4040-225 1Z0-061 70-347 C4090-452 VCP-550 070-177 070-412 70-417 70-463 70-488 MB2-701 EX300 70-411 070-685 1Z0-051 1z0-055 642-813 1z0-047 050-SEPROAUTH-02 70-410 70-432 70-462 70-466 C4090-958 70-689 EX300 70-486 1Z0-061 70-483 642-457 156-816 1z0-144 iseb-swt2 adm-201 vcac510 c4040-252 1z0-418 70-532 rcsp-npm 299-01 c4040-252 70-533 c2010-511 200-120 9l0-422 640-554 700-505 70-457 70-460 400-101 70-410 200-120 MB2-703 70-483 70-346 70-347 MB2-702 MB2-701 M70-201 200-120 70-462 74-335 70-410 70-461 70-462 200-120 70-488 MB2-703 70-480 70-463 70-486 70-417 810-420 70-487 C_TFIN52_66 820-421 JN0-102 70-412 MB6-872
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The State of Texas Files Complaint in the United States Supreme Court Alleging Rio Grande Compact Violations by the State of New Mexico
January 9, 2013

by Richard S. Deitchman
rdeitchman@somachlaw.com

On January 8, 2013, the State of Texas filed a complaint in the United States Supreme Court (Supreme Court) alleging that the State of New Mexico has, contrary to the purpose and intent of the 1938 Rio Grande Compact (Compact), allowed and authorized Rio Grande Project (Project) water intended for use in Texas to be intercepted and used in New Mexico.  The Compact requires that New Mexico deliver Rio Grande water into Elephant Butte Reservoir (Elephant Butte), a storage feature of the Project.  Texas alleges that New Mexico, by allowing and authorizing the interception of Project water intended for Texas, violates the purpose and intent of the Compact, causing grave and irreparable injury to Texas.  Texas included Colorado as a named party in the complaint on the basis that it is also a signatory to the Compact.  The Supreme Court has original and exclusive jurisdiction over cases and controversies between two or more states. 

Somach Simmons & Dunn represents the State of Texas in this litigation and Stuart L. Somach is Counsel of Record for the State of Texas.

Background

The Project provides water to agricultural lands in southern New Mexico and in areas adjacent to El Paso, Texas.  Elephant Butte Dam and Reservoir is the main storage feature of the Project.  Project water is allocated based upon the ratio of irrigable Project acreage within New Mexico and Texas.  Historically, this acreage has been about 57 percent in New Mexico and 43 percent in Texas.  The Compact does not specifically identify a New Mexico–Texas state line delivery obligation, but instead provides for certain water delivery requirements into Elephant Butte Reservoir and otherwise protects the Rio Grande Project and the water allocations from the Project.  A fundamental purpose of the Compact is to maintain Project operations under the conditions that existed at the time of entry to the Compact in 1938. 

New Mexico’s Elephant Butte Irrigation District (EBID) and Texas’ El Paso County Water Improvement District No. 1 (EP#1) are the beneficiaries of Project water.  The City of El Paso, Texas receives approximately 50 percent of its water from the Project pursuant to a contract with EP#1.

In 2008, EBID and EP#1 finalized an operating agreement for the Project with the United States Bureau of Reclamation.  The operating agreement acknowledges the 57/43 percent ratio noted above, and represents a significant compromise among the parties.  In August of 2011, New Mexico filed an action against the Bureau of Reclamation in federal district court in New Mexico seeking to set aside the operating agreement.  Additionally, New Mexico, in New Mexico state court, is in the process of adjudicating water rights to the Lower Rio Grande River in New Mexico.  The adjudication includes non-Project diversions and extractions in areas below Elephant Butte.  Texas is not a party to either the federal district court litigation or the New Mexico state court adjudication.

Texas’ Claims

Texas alleges that New Mexico, based on novel interpretations of the Rio Grande Compact and its resulting obligations, has over-appropriated water for use in New Mexico, which depletes Texas’ allocation of Project water.  The complaint asks the Supreme Court to declare the rights of Texas to the waters of Rio Grande and issue a decree demanding that New Mexico deliver waters of the Rio Grande to Texas in accordance with the Compact, and cease and desist from all actions that interfere with Texas’ Compact rights.  Furthermore, Texas seeks damages for its injuries.

Next Steps

The Supreme Court’s exercise of its original jurisdiction is discretionary.  It will likely ask for New Mexico and Colorado to file responsive briefs, after which it will decide whether to accept Texas’ complaint.  If the Supreme Court accepts Texas’ complaint, it will likely appoint a Special Master as the fact finder.  Because there are no specific deadlines for Supreme Court decisions on original jurisdiction actions, it is difficult to predict when to expect a final ruling on the merits of Texas’ complaint, but it would likely take a number of years.

A copy of the complaint can be found at http://www.tceq.texas.gov/assets/public/agency/01-08-13-motion-complaint-brief.pdf (Jan. 9, 2013).

For more information on Texas v. New Mexico & Colorado, please contact Andrew M. Hitchings or Richard S. Deitchman at (916) 446 7979, or by email (ahitchings@somachlaw.com or rdeitchman@somachlaw.com).

Somach Simmons & Dunn provides the information in its Environmental Law & Policy Alerts and on its website for informational purposes only.  This general information is not a substitute for legal advice, and users should consult with legal counsel for specific advice.  In addition, using this information or sending electronic mail to Somach Simmons & Dunn or its attorneys does not create an attorney-client relationship with Somach Simmons & Dunn.
 

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